CETDEM Organic Farming Project



Development of Organic Standard

(Source: Article by Nuria Alonso in the international magazine of IFOAM No.36)


Initial Development of Organic Standards - Ideology & Principles
1928 The Demeter Symbol, based on Rudolf Steiner’s philosophy, introduced and the first Standards for Demeter Quality Control formulated
1940 Sir Albert Howard, British agronomist working in India published An Agricultural Testament
1942 First issue of Organic Farming and Gardening by J.I. Rodale (US) published
1943 Lady Eve Balfour published The Living Soil (UK)
1946 Foundation of the Soil Association (UK)


Early Development of Private Standards & Government Legislations  
1967 First Organic Standards published (by Soil Association in UK)
1972 Foundation of International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM)
1980 First publication of IFOAM Basic Standards
1990 Organic Foods Production Act passed in the US


Developments in the 1990's
1991 EU Regulation 2092/91 was adopted
1992 The NOP Proposed Rule (National Organic Standards of the US) published
1992 The National Standard for Organic and Bio-Dynamic Produce implemented in Australia
1994 The Chinese National Environmental Protection Agency established the OFDC, currently the main certifier & a standards setting organization
1998 IFOAM developed Organic Textiles Standards, since then other private organizations have developed their own textiles standards
1998 The Swiss Regulation on Organic Faring came into force following the legislation in the EuopreanUnion
1999 Guidelines from FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius adopted
1999 EU incorporated regulation for livestock production


Recent Developments
2000 Japanese Organic Regulation (JAS) published
2000 The NOP Proposed Rule (National Organic Standards of the US) published
2002 Two new fair trade standards, published by the Soil Association (UK) and Ecocert in France (Bio Equitable)
2002 National Organic Program (NOP) Final Rule (US) came into force
2002 FAO and Tropical Fruit Network prepared the Technical Guidelines on Organic Cultivation of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits.
2003 IFOAM and some certifying bodies over the last few years developed Organic Aquaculture Standards
2003 New addition to the EU Regulation 2092/91 to implement standards on the manufacture of livestock feeding stuff.

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